Friday, May 22, 2020

Who Were Some of the Best Women Olympic Skaters

In the 1990s, a national survey named figure skating as Americans second most popular sport. 1st place went to football. Womens skating events are among the most popular attractions for viewers of each Winter Olympics. Adults admire the combination of grace and athleticism while Children — especially young girls — dream of a future as figure skating stars. Flashy costumes and dance moves combine with rigorous feats of strength in the figure skating events. The pairs skating and ice dancing events show women and men in partnership on the ice. Increasingly, women speed skaters captivate audiences as well. The three standards by which early Olympic officials judged whether an event was appropriate for ladies were beauty, form, and appearance. But early in Olympic figure skating history, before Sonja Henie introduced ballet-like moves, and more recently, athleticism in womens figure skating also had strong appeal. Since 1960, womens speed skating, emphasizing speed, stamina, and strength, has been included in the Olympics. While not as popular as the figure skating events, the popularity of womens speed skating has been growing. Is the popularity of womens figure skating a sign that gender stereotypes are alive and well — that women athletes are still more acceptable if they adhere strongly to traditional feminine stereotypes? Or does it just mean that many people are interested in sports that arent about speed, strength, and a little physical violence? Womens world championship figure skating dates back to 1902 when Madge Syers of Great Britain entered the London World Championship and finished second — just behind Swedish male skater, Ulrich Salchow. But the officials, who had not anticipated women entering the event, then barred women from the world championships. In 1905, a separate womens figure skating event was initiated, and Syers won the first two annual championships in that competition. Women Olympic Figure Skaters Some women Olympic figure skaters you should know: Sonja Henie: Norways Pavlova on ice brought ballet moves to the athletic routines. She went to Hollywood and toured in an ice revue, setting a standard many later figure skating champions followed.Barbara Ann Scott: She was nicknamed Canadas sweetheart.Tenley Albright: She was the first American woman to win the Olympic gold for figure skating.Peggy Fleming: She was a media darling and an early superstar.Dorothy Hamill: Her hairstyle and her personality won hearts worldwide while she won the Olympic gold.Debi Thomas: She lost the gold but became the first African American medalist at the Winter Olympics. After a short pro tour, Thomas went to medical school to become an orthopedic surgeon.Katarina Witt: She was an East German skater who dominated the sport and was famous as a touring professional.Nancy Kerrigan, Tonya Harding, and Oksana Baiul: Tonya Hardings husband and associates deliberately injured Nancy Kerrigan, her skating rival. Kerrigan was allowed a berth on the Olympic tea m though she had to miss the trials, Ukrainian Baiul skated to the Olympic gold past both of them.Tara Lipinski and Michelle Kwan: They were both excellent figure skaters. They were competitors in 1998 when Lipinski upset Kwan to become the youngest medalist in the event.More women figure skaters you should know about include Kristi Yamaguchi, Nicole Bobek, and Carol Heiss. Pairs Skating In pairs skating, male and female partners coordinate their figure skating, sometimes mirroring each other, sometimes complementing each other. Some women pairs skaters you should know: Irina RodninaEkaterina GordeevaTai Babilionia Ice Dancing In 1976, ice dancing was added as an Olympic sport, with more emphasis on dance and artistry and less emphasis on specific figures than figure skating. Some women ice dancers you should know include: Jayne TorvillIrina Romanova Speed Skating Speed skating for men was added to the Winter Olympics in 1924, and womens speed skating Winter Olympics competition dates back to 1960. Some women speed skating champions you should know include: Bonnie BlairCarol Heiss Jenkins

Friday, May 8, 2020

The Cask Of Amontillado, By Edgar Allen Poe Essay

Everyone has character flaws. Everyone has underlying characteristics that make himself or herself feel insecure, jealous, or irrational at times, and although these characteristics are not necessarily good, that does not make them bad either. These character flaws are special; they make each person who they are. These flaws show that people really care, love and appreciate one another, albeit a little too much at times; however, they also show people’s hate and despise for one another. This side of character flaws is explored in Edgar Allen Poe’s, â€Å"The Cask of Amontillado.† Although Montresor believes that he is superior to Fortunato, they both demonstrate similar character flaws that make them seem very similar. The main characters in Poe’s, â€Å"The Cask of Amontillado†, are Montresor and Fortunato. Montresor is the narrator, and he describes themselves as being friends, or acquaintances at the very least. Fortunato is presumably a noblemen of sorts, who emphasizes art and gemmary; he is also known as a gifted connoisseur as is Montresor. However, Montresor sees himself as far different as Fortunato, aside from the love of wines. Fortunato supposedly insulted Montresor, so Montresor has a deep seated hate of Fortunato that he has pledged to act on for retribution. This ultimately leads to the death of a drunken Fortunato one day during carnival season. Montresor is the narrator of the short story that is about a deed he did fifty years in the past, but his identity is notShow MoreRelatedThe Cask Of Amontillado By Edgar Allen Poe992 Words   |  4 PagesEdgar Allen Poe had many pieces of literature, but one in particular â€Å"The Cask of Amontillado† reflected his personality. It is a short story that can be read easily, and can take on many ironies. The several ironies can point to the fact that Poe himself was implanted into the story as he was a mysterious man. There are several characters with different personalities often interpreted as Poe hiding his dark side which would be â€Å"Montresor†. The other personality Fortunato could be that drunken personalityRead MoreThe Cask Of Amontillado By Edgar Allen Poe953 Words   |  4 Pagesseek revenge. â€Å"The Cask of Amontillado† is a short story by the American poet, editor and story writer Edgar Allen Poe. This story is a tale of revenge touching on the da rker sides of human nature and at what lengths a man will go to achieve vengeance. We are told by our narrator Montresor that he had been insulted by a wealthy wine connoisseur named Fortunato. Montresor picks him out of the carnival and lures him into his wine cellar with promise of a renown sherry wine, Amontillado. Fortunato is baitedRead MoreThe Cask Of Amontillado By Edgar Allen Poe1052 Words   |  5 PagesEdgar Allen Poe was one of the most famed authors of death, decay, and depression in the 18th century. Poe started his writing career during the Romantic literature period, a period focused on nature, emotions, and a fascination with the supernatural elements. As writers started to write in this new genre, works started becoming dark, with an eerie feeling and a tone of death. Out of the Romantic era came the sub-classification of the Gothic genre. Poe started to embrace this new genre and his writingsRead MoreThe Cask Of Amontillado By Edgar Allen Poe1204 Words   |  5 Pagesbest could, but when he ventured upon insult I vowed revenge† (Poe 1). This line draws the reader into the story by bringing up questions like, what insults could have been done to deserve such revenge? The uniqueness in the question itself is that it turns the table of a classic mystery or gothic story (Mcgarth). Instead of asking â€Å"who did it,† the question is, â€Å"why did he do it† (Baraban Motive for Murder in Cask of Amontillado ). Montresor uses Fortunato’s strengthens and turns them intoRead MoreThe Cask Of Amontillado By Edgar Allen Poe851 Words   |  4 Pagesabout â€Å"The Cask of Amontillado† Do hate someone, but act like they are your best friend to get something that you want from them? Edgar Allen Poe does in his story â€Å"The Cask of Amontillado† as he uses Montresor to tell Fortunato’s journey to catacombs and how he â€Å"conceives and executes an ingenious plan... for revenging† Fortunato (Gruesser 129). In â€Å"The cask of Amontillado† Poe uses tone, plot devices, and the setting to present the theme of appearances masking reality. To begin, Poe uses one toRead MoreThe Cask Of Amontillado By Edgar Allen Poe1025 Words   |  5 PagesJared Mourning English II Prof. Platt Thursday, March 3, 2016 Fortunato’s Misfortune In â€Å"The Cask of Amontillado,† Edgar Allen Poe issues a warning that even your closest friends can stab you in the back when you insult them in the right way. Poe perfectly portrays the way someone you think is your best friend could just as well be your biggest enemy. In â€Å"The Cask of Amontillado† Edgar Allen Poe uses Montresor’s point of view, plot, and symbolism to convey the cold, merciless man who is MontresorRead More`` Cask Of Amontillado `` By Edgar Allen Poe1505 Words   |  7 PagesEdgar Allen Poe was a writer who sculpted every detail to create his desired â€Å"theme†. His short stories are mostly representing the murder of a character. The murderer, who is the narrator, explains the plan for the murder. The narrator destroys the humans around him through his destructive mind. The reason for the murder is revenge and hatred. In â€Å"Cask of Amontillado† and â€Å"The Tell-Tale Heart† Poe utilized â€Å"unreliable na rrators,† he even created similarities between murder and victim to establishRead MoreThe Cask Of Amontillado By Edgar Allen Poe1492 Words   |  6 Pages McMullen 531-06 1 September 2014 Summer Reading The Cask of Amontillado In The Cask of Amontillado, by Edgar Allen Poe, Montressor is able to successfully manipulate Fortunato s arrogance and pride and use it against him as revenge. Montressor knows that Fortunato has a love for wine. Montressor tells Fortunato that he may have acquired Amontillado, a very nice wine. Montressor is not quite sure if the wine is Amontillado, but since Fotunato appears to be occupied Montressor saysRead MoreThe Cask Of Amontillado By Edgar Allen Poe1723 Words   |  7 Pages Were Montresor’s action in The Cask of Amontillado justified? Is killing someone justifiable? In Edgar Allen Poe’s short story The Cask of Amontillado that question is one that could be asked. The short story is about a man named Montresor and his quest to get revenge on his foe Fourtando who has apparently insulted Montresor. Around the time of the carnival season Montresor leaves his house to go find Fourtando and get his revenge he tells none of his servants toRead MoreThe Cask Of Amontillado, By Edgar Allen Poe884 Words   |  4 PagesIn â€Å"The Cask of Amontillado,† by Edgar Allen Poe, one finds the horror throughout its pages. The ideas of unexplained revenge and images of scenes only getting darker and colder cause one to have feelings of dread and disbelief. The protagonist, Montresor, has waited fifty years to tell his story, and one has to question the reliability of what he is saying. Questions of true justice and the power of an insult arise, only magnifying those ideas of horror. In â€Å"The Cask of Amontillado ,† one sees a

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Cosmic Creation Myth Free Essays

Cosmic Creation Myth across Culture Paper Kristin Sheffield HUM 105 For decades myths have been told about the development of the world. Each culture has their version of how life began. These myths are centered on creation; how the earth was created, how the sky, land or the sea was created, and how humans and animals were created. We will write a custom essay sample on Cosmic Creation Myth or any similar topic only for you Order Now These myths give cultures the security of belief. Different cultures believe differently, but these beliefs help certain cultures to continue to face problems or issues, worship, and create happiness and peace. The Enuma Elish Apsu, the father of Sweet Waters  and Tiamat, Mother of Salt Waters created 3 unruly children. The children gods were just being children, but unfortunately they were disrupting Tiamat’s peace. She grew to hate their behavior and asked Apsu to deal with them. When he tried they just ignored him. Due to their unwillingness to obey their parents Apsu’s resolution was to destroy them. Tiamat was very upset by this resolution. She told Apsu that his resolution was evil and they needed to be more understanding. Her pleas were ignored by Apsu. Apsu and Tiamat’s creations soon realized Apsu’s evil plans to destroy them. At first they cried, and then they succumbed to their fate. However somehow they had befriended Ea, the wisest God, who eventually killed Apsu and made his co-conspirator his slave. This is a Babylonian Myth. This myth later became the reason for a national holiday in which they â€Å"emphasized the reestablishment of order†, (Rosenberg. 2006). The Creation of the Universe Ife Olorun, the god with the greatest knowledge, had a son, Obatala, who wanted to create land where Olokun, the goddess of endless waters and wild marshes ruled. Obatala went to his older brother for advice on how to proceed. His brother’s gift was one of prophecy. He advised his brother and sent him on his way. Obatala did everything he said he’d do. He created land in the middle of marshy water; he then created plants. But he wanted more and more. While drunk on wine, he started playing with clay. He asked Olorun to â€Å"breathe life into them†, (Rosenberg. 2006). Once he sobered he realized they were imperfect. He decided never to drink that type of wine again and vowed to protect all the humans that suffered because he was drunk. He â€Å"became the protector of all those who are born deformed† (Rosenberg. 006). This myth came from Africa; the Yoruba people. They showed more emotion in their stories; Love, jealousy, sympathy and anger. As with many myths, the creators of these myths were neither male nor female. They were groups of people. The Enuma Elish myth was from the Babylonians and also the Assyrians as well. For The Creation of Universe Ife, this myth came from the Yoruba people of Africa. Together these myths share similarities about suffering and appreciation for what they have. In these myths something vital has to be restored in order to move forward. With the Enuma Elish it was the balance between good and evil. With The Creation of Universe Ife he became the protector of imperfect people. Both The Enuma Elish and The Creation of Universe Ife had mainly water as the major element. In The Enuma Elish both parent gods were from Salt or Sweet waters. Olokun, in The Creation of Universe Ife was god of mash and wild waters. In both myths anything that disrupted peace made the waters â€Å"surge back and forth† (Rosenberg. 2006). Another similarity was humans were created. In The Enuma Elisa Ea killed Kingu by severing his blood vessels. The first humans came from the blood. In The Creation of Universe Ife, Olorun â€Å"breathed life† into the clay for Obatala creating humans. The difference was Obatala wanted companions, but Ea’s purpose was to have the humans â€Å"serve the gods† (Rosenberg. 2006). These myths were designed to understand the unexplainable. Different cultures explained them differently. Each culture had god and goddesses. Stories of these gods and goddesses explained things to humans such as how we (humans) came to be; how the earth formed; why humans look differently from other humans or animals; etc. Different cultures believe how things came to be differently. It depends on their faith, religion, and beliefs as to what they will believe. In all the stories that are being told, it would only take a person with influence to announce the story is true in order for other people to start believing. Once other people start believing, the proof is optional. Reference Rosenberg, D. (2006). World Mythology: An anthology of great myths and epics (3rd ed. ). Chicago, IL: McGraw-Hill. How to cite Cosmic Creation Myth, Papers

Tuesday, April 28, 2020

Shel Silverstein Essays - Childrens Poetry, Shel Silverstein

Shel Silverstein Chris Senn March 6, 2000 572 55 3153 Research Paper While I was growing up as a child, there were three authors whose works I read devoutly. One was Dr. Seuss and I liked his books so much that I am proud to say I have read every one published. The second author who had a profound impact on me was Jan Bernstein who is responsible for that loveable family The Bernstein Bears. The third is a poet, which is odd because I never have liked poetry. Shel Silverstein's children's poetry books were the only poetry I read until I was twelve and are the one's I still enjoy the most today as a young man. Shel Silverstein is known to most as the critically acclaimed children's poet, and before this project, I was unaware of the other things he had done. Shel Silverstein also did cartoons, served for his country during the Korean War, wrote folk songs, played the guitar, and probably most shocking to me, were his poems and drawings for Playboy Magazine which depicted fairly gruesome sexual acts as well as drug use, especially his own. Life experience seems to be the influence for his NC-17 rated material but I was curious to who influenced his witty, lyrical children's pieces. When studying Silverstein's poetry, you can see how the nonsense subjects and rhymes look similar to Edward Lear's nonsense poetry of one hundred and fifty years earlier and how the poetry of Ogden Nash, which Silverstein might have possibly read as a child, had influences on Shel's own pieces. However, the conclusion I have reached is purely hypothetical. Shel Silverstein once said he had no influences on his poetic style. In a 1975 interview with Jean Merciar, published in the February 24, 1975 issue of Publisher's Weekly, Silverstein said, ?When I was kid- 12, 14, around there- I would much rather have been a good baseball player or a hit with the girls. But I couldn't play ball, I couldn't dance. Luckily the girls didn't want me; not much I could do about that. So I started to draw and to write. I was also lucky that I didn't have anybody to copy, be impressed by. I had developed my own style, I was creating before I knew there was a Thurber, a Benchley, a Price and a Steinberg. I never even saw their work till I was around thirty. By the time I got to where I was attracting girls, I was already into work, and it was more important to me. Not that I wouldn't rather make love, but the work has become a habit? Even though Shel says nobody influenced his artistic abilities it is hard to believe that. Especially when you see how similar some of his pieces are to Edward Lear's. One of the most captivating things about Silverstein's poetry is that a sketch that he himself drew accompanies each one. They are usually funny, humorous sketches that add a visual interpretation to the poem. I thought that only Silverstein used such a technique but Edward Lear used the same idea during the 1850's. Besides similar artistic abilities they also made silly, goofy poems. Here's an example from Edward Lear: There was a Young Lady whose chin, Resembled the point of a pin; So she had made it sharp, And purchased a harp, And played several tunes with her chin. Along with that piece, there is a comical drawing of exactly what the poem says, a lady with a pointy chin playing a harp. There is a poem in Falling Up, by Shel Silverstein that uses the same techniques: Scale If only I could see the scale, I'm sure that it would state That I've lost ounces?maybe pounds Or even tons of weight. ?You'd better eat some pancakes- You're as skinny as a rail.? I'm sure that's what the scale would say? If I could see the scale. (Silverstein, p. 12) Of course there is a sketch of a fat man standing on a scale he cannot see, done by Shel himself. Besides being humorous pieces, there are other similarities you can derive. Both poets use the same phrase they used to start and to finish their respective poems. However, Edward Lear never took his poetry as far as Silverstein. Most of Lear's poems are five lines long

Thursday, March 19, 2020

Pedictive and diagnostic model Essays

Pedictive and diagnostic model Essays Pedictive and diagnostic model Essay Pedictive and diagnostic model Essay Any predictive and diagnostic model of environmental change is dependent on the accuracy of its data and the soundness of its premises (Mortimore, 1998). In terms of form (or physical manifestation of the process of desertification), the received narrative promoted images of moving deserts and the southward movement of the Sahara (Swift, 1995). Yet there is considerable evidence to suggest that rather than a linear encroachment of such conditions, desertification occurs at particular points (Bernus, 1977 cited in Mortimore, 1998). The limitations of the method of analysis used by Lamprey (1975) and Ibrahim (1984) have been further exposed by subsequent studies. Following a series of investigations by Lund University throughout the 1980s, Helleden (1991) was able to state that; none of these studies verified the creation of long lasting desert-like conditions in the Sudan during the 1962-1984 period there was no trend in the creation or growth of desertification patches around 103 examined villages and water holes over the period 1961-1985. No major shifts in the northern cultivation limit were identified [and there were] no major changes in vegetation cover and crop productivity which cannot be explained by varying rainfall characteristics. Similar results were evident in the Manga Grassland survey by Mortimore in 1989. By comparing aerial plots of the dunes over the period 1950 -1969 with the boundaries delimited by the Forestry Commission Survey in 1937, he concluded that many of the basic characteristics of the area showed continuity over time (Mortimore, 1989). Also this time span covered a period of considerable settlement, agricultural intensification and expansion leading to doubt over the basic hypothesis of desertification (ibid, 1989). In terms of a process, it has already been noted that desertification may be more usefully considered with reference to its individual constituents of desiccation, drought and degradation (Warren, 1996). But a further point should also be raised here. Namely, that the desertification is often perceived as a disruption to a stable, equilibrial natural system. There is considerable evidence to suggest adequately represent dryland environments; they are unstable and disequilibrial in the short term and transitional in the longer term (Mortimore, 1998). In terms of both the form and process of desertification, the accuracy of its premises and data may be found wanting on both counts. The utility of the concept may be further questioned when the its structural causation mechanisms of population growth is considered. The very definition of desertification automatically limits the conceptualisation of dryland sustainability, through the inherent assumption of the failure of human management systems to cope with increasing population pressure (Adams, 2003). Within a desertification narrative therefore, there is little room for the possibility of adaptation and flexibility of management techniques and practices by ordinary people (Mortimore, 1998; Adams, 2003). The dominance of large-scale studies that have an emphasis on quantitative analysis (such as remote sensing) rather than micro-scale perspectives that focus upon the social science aspect of the problem may explain this omission (Mortimore, 1998). A number of studies in the last decade have sought to de-link the implicit connotation of population growth and environmental degradation that has been central to the desertification narrative. Such analyses draw on the ideas of Boserup (1965), suggesting that increasing population pressure can provide the stimulus for innovation and agricultural intensification, for example through increased cropping intensities and the introduction of land saving techniques. Tiffen et al. (1994) examine the case of the Machakos District in Kenya, where there has been considerable concern over the sustainability of agriculture since 1930s colonial administrators attempted to implement soil conservation measures. They used a variety of historical and current sources, such as oral history, to undertake the study. They show that increasing population densities have facilitated more productive agriculture and greater specialization and exchange within society (ibid, 1994). Specific strategies include migration, the diversification of incomes (including non-agricultural incomes) and agricultural intensification (ibid. , 1994). The area cultivated increased from 15 percent of the district in the 1930s to between 50 and 80 percent in 1978, and the land supports a population that has grown almost fivefold, from about 240,000 in the 1930s to about 1. 4 million in 1989 (ibid, 1994). The photographs of Kiima Kimwe in 1937 and 1991 (below, left and right respectively) clearly illustrate the use of careful terracing and subsequent increases in productivity through the planting of banana and other trees (Drylands Research website, 2003). Tiffen et al. s (1994) study illustrates how local communities can respond spontaneously to land degradation and make land improving investments that significantly increase productivity over time. Applying the desertification framework in this situation would be of little utility in the explanation of population growth concurrent with continued or even improved prospects of sustainability. Incorporating the idea of sustainable livelihoods and of social, human and human-made capital may be a further help to examining what the concept of desertification has missed through its biophysical sustainability bias (Serageldin, 1996). Such ideas open the possibility for a number of other inputs that may compromise, or indeed uphold, the sustainability of dryland production systems. An analysis of the social system in dryland production can point to the need for a sustainable social as well as natural system for the continuing use of the environment. Through the integration of this perspective, Murton (1997) is able to question whether Tiffen et. als (1994) these examples of sustainable resource use have been compatible with the maintenance of sustainable livelihoods in such marginal African environments such as the Machakos. Murtons research (1997) adds further dimensions the consideration of dryland production systems, including a requirement to consider how polarization and global markets can also impact upon the sustainability of this environment. The integration of the complex social and economic adjustments that embody the everyday decisions of local people has considerable potential to explain the disjuncture between the doomsday predictions of desertification narratives and small-scale evidence on the ground (Mortimore, 1998). An analysis of the history of the concept of desertification can easily lead to conclusions about how science got it wrong, with a consequent attribution of blame which is all too resonant with earlier desertification narratives (Thomas, 1997). A more thorough consideration will recognise that science necessitates the constant refinement and evaluation of ideas by default (ibid. , 1997). This points to the need to ensure the transmission of uncertainty at the science-action interface and a careful reconsideration of how scientific concepts can be taken selectively or used out of context (ibid, 1997). In this way, the legacy of the desertification narrative may yet prove useful as an important reminder of the differential needs of science and policy and the need for a more cautious approach to scientific truth and objectivity. This has been neatly conceptualised as the tension between models of environmental change as heuristics or truth machines by Wynne Sackley (1994, cited in Mortimore, 1998). From a slightly different perspective, an understanding of desertification may be considered critical precisely to move beyond it (Swift, 1996). Until the ghost of the received narrative is laid to rest in national governments and in major NGOs, the deconstruction (versus the understanding) of desertification will be key to the comprehension of dryland production systems (ibid., 1996). In conclusion, the narrative of desertification may be considered as particularly unhelpful to an accurate understanding of the many facets of sustainability in dryland production systems. Definitions of the terms are problematic, contested and confused, leading to problems for clear and concise communication on the topic. Moreover, the scientific evidence and data upon which the narrative is premised has been shown to be seriously flawed and also coloured by ignorance and prejudice towards indigenous livelihoods and technologies. As such the consideration of dryland sustainability in the framework of desertification may be seen to incomplete and also misguided. However, this is not to say that credible work on drylands has not been performed, nor that real environmental problems do not exist in these ecosystems. Although the term has continued to be adopted in policy circles, the use of an alternative, such as dry land degradation, may prove useful in the longer term and particularly when trying to identify effective interventions. Knowledge of the desertification narrative however, may be seen to provide an important reminder of the need to actively manage the use of science as a basis for policy, particularly when in complex issues that contain a substantial element of uncertainty. An analysis of the way in which powerful institutions have harnessed the power of the desertification narrative is also important for its deconstruction and for the possibility of its succession by a concept that is more attuned to the real and substantive issues of dryland sustainability. References Adams, W.M (2001) Green Development: environment and sustainability in the Third World. Routledge: London Adams, W. M Mortimore, M. J. (1997) Agricultural intensification and flexibility in the Nigerian Sahel Geographical Journal 163:150-160 Drylands Research Organisation Website (accessed 19/11/2003) The Machakos Study (available online at drylandsresearch. org. uk/dr_machakos. html) ICIHI (1986) The Encroaching Desert: The Consequences of Human Failure A Report for the Independent Commission on International Humanitarian Issues. Zed Book Ltd: London.

Tuesday, March 3, 2020

Forest transpiration is an element in the water cycle

Forest transpiration is an element in the water cycle Transpiration From Forest Woody Plants Transpiration is a term used for the release and evaporation of water from all plants including trees that is released out and into the Earths atmosphere. Nearly 90% of this water exits the tree in the form of vapor through small pores called  stomata  on leaves. The leaf cuticle covering located on the surface of leaves and corky lenticels located on the surface of stems also provide some moisture. The stomata are also specially designed to allow carbon dioxide gas to exchange from air to assist in  photosynthesis  that then creates the fuel for growth. The forest woody plant locks up carbon-based cellular tissue growth while releasing residual oxygen. Forests surrender large volumes  of water into the earths atmosphere from all vascular plant leaves and stem.   Leaf transpiration  is the main source of evapotranspiration from forests and, at some cost during dry years, give up much of its valuable water to the Earths atmosphere.   Here are the three major tree structures that aid in forest transpiration: Leaf stomata  -   microscopic openings on the surfaces of plant leaves that allow for the easy passage of water vapor, carbon dioxide, and oxygen. Leaf cuticle  - a protecting film covering the  epidermis or skin of  leaves, young shoots, and other aerial plant organs. Lenticels  -  a small cork pore, or narrow line, on the surface of woody plant stems. In addition to cooling forests and the organisms within them, transpiration also helps to cause a massive flow of mineral nutrients and water from the roots to the shoots. This movement of water is caused by a decrease in hydrostatic (water) pressure throughout a forests canopy. This pressure difference is mainly caused by water endlessly evaporating from the tree leaf stomata into the atmosphere. Transpiration from forest  trees is essentially the evaporation of water vapors from plant leaves and stems. Evapotranspiration is another important part of the  water cycle of which forests play a major role. Evapotranspiration is the collective evaporation of plant transpiration from the Earths land and sea surface into the atmosphere. Evaporation accounts for the movement of water to the air from sources such as the soil, canopy interception, and waterbodies.   (Note: An element (such as a forest of trees) that contributes to evapotranspiration can be called an   evapotranspirator.) Transpiration also includes a process called guttation, which is the loss of water dripping off uninjured leaf margins of the plant but plays a minor role in transpiration. The combination of plant transpiration (10%) and the evaporation from all bodies of water to include the oceans (90%) is responsible for all of the earths atmospheric moisture. The Water Cycle The interchange of water between air, land and the sea, and between organisms living in their environment is accomplished through the water cycle. Since the Earths water cycle is a loop of occurring events, there can be no starting or ending point. So, we can start learning about the process by beginning where most water exists - with the  sea. The driving mechanism of the water cycle is ever-present solar heat (from the sun) which warms the waters of the world. This spontaneous cycle of naturally occurring events creates an effect that can be diagrammed as a spinning loop. The process involves evaporation, transpiration, cloud formation, precipitation, surface water runoff, and the percolation of water into the soil. Water at the seas surface evaporates as vapor into the atmosphere on rising air currents where the resulting cooler temperatures cause it to  condense  into clouds. Air currents then move clouds and particulate materials which collide continuing to grow and eventually falling out of the sky as precipitation. Some precipitation in the form of snow can accumulate in polar regions, stored as frozen water and locked up for long periods. Annual snowfall in temperate regions will usually thaw and melt as spring returns and that water returns to fill rivers, lakes or soaks into the soil. Most precipitation falling onto land will, due to gravity, either percolate into the soil or will flow over the ground as  surface runoff. As with snow-melt, surface runoff enters rivers in valleys in the landscape with  streamflow  moving water towards the oceans. There is also groundwater  seepage that will  accumulate and is  stored as freshwater  in aquifers. The series of precipitation and evaporation continually repeats itself and becomes a closed system. Sources:     Ecology and Field Biology, R.L. Smith (buy from Amazon)         Transpiration and the Water Cycle, USGS

Sunday, February 16, 2020

The major differences between the exoteric and esoteric path of Islam Essay

The major differences between the exoteric and esoteric path of Islam - Essay Example The exoteric path in contemporary Islam is composed of moderates and outnumbers the esoteric path of the radicals but still stands hijacked by nascent Islamic radicalism. Islam is typically perceived as one, whole and uniformly practiced religion but reality belies this simplified disposition. The paths of exoteric and esoteric Islam are well differentiated and this paper seeks to discuss the major differences between both. The largest difference between the exoteric Muslims and the esoteric Muslims is their attitude towards the propagation of religion. The esoteric Muslims see Islam as the ultimate solution for mankind and believe that it their responsibility to enforce Islam around the globe. Such quarters see Islam as the final solution for every problem that mankind faces ranging from emotional problems to population control. Sayyid Qutb, one of the founding fathers of modern radical Islam argues in his text Milestones (Qutb 57): â€Å"... annihilate all those political and mate rial powers which stand between people and Islam ...† In contrast, the original teachings of Islam are far more peaceful and refrains the believer from imposing his version of religion on the other person, whether Muslim or non Muslim. The Prophet of Islam was a staunch believer in religious pluralism including within Islamic realms. The Prophet of Islam, Muhammad, has been quoted as saying (Ernst 1045): â€Å"Difference of opinion is a mercy for my community.† Additionally, religious pluralism has been favored in the sacred text of Islam, the Quran. The Quran’s second chapter, Al Baqra, declares openly that the believers are not allowed to force other people into their religious fold. Islam has historically relied on preaching through peaceful means including open interaction with non Muslims. The earliest traditions from Islam, including the time when early Muslims were being prosecuted in Makkah, show that forced conversions and the imposition of religious doc trine on other religions was not allowed. The same can be said of the times when the Muslims were in power and had taken control of large swaths of the globe. The reign of Umar is mentionable in this regard. In around a decade Umar was able to expand the Islamic frontiers manifold through armed conflict but again Islam was not imposed on the conquered people (Ahmed 34). Instead, Islam was spread in most of the conquered areas through open interaction with the non Muslims. Even with the existence of evidence to the contrary, today’s radical Islamists are bent upon furthering Islam through violent means. A major problem that Islam faces like other major religions is the loss in translation. Islam was originally revealed in the Arabian Peninsula and the medium of communication and instruction remained Arabic. The Prophet Muhammad was Arab and was not instructed in other languages, so his entire set of instructions for Islam has been preserved in Arabic. Similarly, the Quran was revealed and the scribed in Arabic too. There were initially no problems as to the use of Arabic since the early converts and most of the converts in the Prophet’s own lifetime were Arabs. However, as the Islamic empire began to spread under the Rightly Guided Caliphs, the need for taking up other languages became apparent. It was felt that translating massive works of Quran and Hadith into other languages would abrade the meanings of the original texts. In an effort to